See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Europe in Year 2000. These questions have acquired new importance as Europe has come to be more than a geographic expression. The mountain ranges of Europe and Asia. As navigators, explorers, and colonists, for a long time they dominated much of the rest of the world and left on it the impress of their values, their technology, their politics, and even their dress. FIND OUT MORE. A Brief History of Europe is a free content online book published on English Wikibooks. But, whereas World War I exacerbated nationalism and ideological extremism in Europe, World War II had almost the opposite effect. When in 1988/89 the Soviet leader Gorbachev made clear that he would not force the countries of the East block to stick to Communism the Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989 and the Soviet Union collapsed (1991). There are several reasons. The French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, conquered and reformed the social structure of the continent through war up to 1815, when he met his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and was sent away into exile. They also exported both nationalism and weaponry. The fall of the Western Roman Empire was followed by a decline of Western Europe. The history of Europe means all the time since the beginning of written records in the European continent up to the present day. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. To outsiders, they seem clearly part of Europe. 1730 Dutch chart of history and geography of European states.jpg 14,354 × 12,138; 36.49 MB. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. By combining a wide geographical compass with a relatively short time span, the journal achieves both range and depth in its coverage. People across the world feared a nuclear war because of the tension, and Europe, divided by the Iron Curtain, was assumed to be a probable battleground. Europe's antiquity dates from the Minoan civilization, the Myceneans and later on Homer's Iliad in Ancient Greece of around 700 BC. Within five years of the war’s end, the French foreign minister Robert Schuman, prompted by Jean Monnet, proposed to Germany the first practical move toward European unity, and the West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer agreed. For a discussion of the physical and human geography of the continent, see Europe. In the Middle Ages, it was imperfectly embodied first by Charlemagne’s empire and then by the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic church. Simon Jenkins’s survey of European history is wide-ranging, pithy and, for the most part, accurate. Ancient History Encyclopedia. As well as the dead, the wars left lasting wounds, psychological and physical alike. The conflict between the advocates of a capitalist economy and democratic political system and a communistic economy and political system led to the Cold War, a forty-year argument between the United States and the Soviet Union, two of the countries which had worked together to win the Second World War and the two which had come out of it with the most powerful military forces. Europe signed a new treaty of union, which included 27 European countries in 2007. This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Europe, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Europe. True, music does not tell stories or paint pictures, but it stirs feelings and evokes moods, through both of which various kinds of reality can be suggested or expressed. Western Christians completed the Reconquista and discovered a New World in 1492. Europe in Year 700. Recommended By. Europe in Year 1600. In the beginning all that existed was an unpopulated peninsula attached to the western edge of the world’s largest landmass . According to this tale, the great god Zeus, seeing the lovely Phoenician princess Europa bathing (or, according to other versions, playing with her handmaidens) by the sea shore, transformed himself into a magnificent white bull and slowly approached her from the sea. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates. Related topics are discussed in such articles as those on religion (e.g., Celtic religion; Greek religion; Germanic religion; Christianity; and Judaism), literature (e.g., English literature, Scandinavian literature, and Russian literature), and the fine arts (e.g., painting, history of; and music, history of). Throughout Europe the period from about 1150 to 1300 sees a steady increase in prosperity, linked with a rise in population. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. It therefore represents … Rich monasteries, controlled by powerful abbots, become a significant feature of feudal Europe. Communism became less attractive when it became clear that it could promote economic growth less effectively than the capitalistic Western states and that it was not suited for a reform that allowed freedom of speech for everyone. Explore the history, the arts, the discoveries, the inventions, the way of life of the European People. History History 'In the beginning, there was no Europe,’ writes Professor Norman Davies in Europe: A History. 1349 burning of Jews-European chronicle on Black Death.jpg 868 × 684; 268 KB. After World War II, much was heard of “the European idea.” Essentially, this meant the idea of European unity, at first confined to western Europe but by the beginning of the 1990s seeming able at length to embrace central and eastern Europe as well. Davies covers European history in the full, from the earliest times to the point of completion of the book back in 1991. In the desperation of war, the Russian Revolution promised the people "peace, bread and land" and led to the end of the Russian Empire and its replacement by the formation of the Soviet Union.  The Balkan nations began to regain their independence from the Ottoman Empire. The power of its countries has stretched far beyond the continent, touching every corner of the Earth. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? A Modern History of Europe: Men Cultures and Societies from the Renaissance to the Present 1st Edition by Eugene Joseph Weber (Author) 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 ratings. Later, a number of political theorists proposed plans for European union, and both Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler tried to unite Europe by conquest. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The relationship between nature and culture, The term and concept before the 18th century, Enlightenment scorn and Romantic admiration, Late antiquity: the reconfiguration of the Roman world, The organization of late imperial Christianity, The transformation of thought and learning, The structure of ecclesiastical and devotional life, From persuasion to coercion: The emergence of a new ecclesiastical discipline, From territorial principalities to territorial monarchies. VISIT WITH YOUR FAMILY. Can Astrakhan, for instance, be regarded as European? World War I cost more than 8 million European lives, World War II more than 18 million in battle, bombing, and systematic Nazi genocide—to say nothing of the 30 million who perished elsewhere. History of Europe - History of Europe - Music: It may seem as if the art of music by its nature would not lend itself to the exploration and expression of reality characteristic of Romanticism, but that is not so. In this sense, what Europeans chiefly share is their diversity; and it may be this that has made them so energetic and combative. It is also densely populated—a mosaic of different peoples with a multiplicity of languages. History of Europe, history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. A printable version of Brief History of Europe is available. For the lives of prominent European figures, see specific biographies by name—e.g., Charlemagne, Erasmus, and Bismarck. HOUSE OF EUROPEAN HISTORY. The last vestiges of serfdom were abolished in Austria-Hungary in 1848. The period known as classical antiquity… But after humanoid settlers arrived between 850,000 and 700,000 BC, Europe’s temperate climate and unthreatening environment would make it ripe for agricultural … Governments changed in many countries, some by elections and some by revolutions. More land is brought into cultivation - a process in which the Cistercians play an important part. The Christian religion was adopted in the fourth century, and in the sixth was organized, within the Empire, by Emperor Justinian I (527–565) with five most important cities: Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria. Europe in Year 900 . This is made possible using tablet devices, which provide an interactive guide to the museum and can be configured according to language preference. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. From then on, many others have followed in their footsteps, striving to build on this vision through successive treaties. The name 'Europe’ has long been thought to have been derived from the ancient myth of Zeus and Europa. Conflict intensified across the globe, in a chase for empires, where powerful countries turned less powerful ones into colonies, until the outbreak, in 1914, of the biggest war that had ever been fought up to that point in time. The history of the European Union . It took in wars which were already happening in other places, most notably the war between Japan and China. Millions of people around the world lost their jobs. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861. Europe's antiquity dates from the Minoan civilization, the Myceneans and later on Homer's Iliad in Ancient Greece of around 700 BC. Visionary leaders came together to create economic and political stability to ensure long term peace in Europe. They led respectively a Western Bloc and an Eastern Bloc, dividing Europe. Europe in Year 800. Some of the best-known civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean, which flourished during the Bronze Age until they collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC. After the Franco-Prussian War, Italy and Germany were formed, each from groups of smaller countries which spoke the same languages, in 1870 and 1871. Although uniquely favoured by fertile soils and temperate climates, they have long proved themselves warlike. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Europe’s diversity thus helped foster its impulse to unite. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "The illusion that Communism was reformable, that, "Gorbachev did more than just let the colonies go. Its western frontiers seem clearly defined by its coastline, yet the position of the British Isles remains equivocal. Back to top. Europe in Year 1500. VISIT … Click for more facts on Europe & it's history. Therefore, the Soviet Union forced Hungary to give up its reform in 1956, it favoured the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and it stopped reform in Czechoslovakia in 1968. Open on Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays - Booking mandatory. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. As for Europe, a brief chronological account of its significant events begins during prehistoric times with the emergence of Homo sapiens (early man), roughly 40,000 years ago. The Thirty Years War, the Treaty of Westphalia and the Glorious Revolution prepared for expansion and enlightenment. Underlying this policy is the conviction that Europeans have more in common than divides them, especially in the modern world. The narrative proceeds at breakneck speed but, in a way, this helps to capture the chaotic story of the continent. The governments soon fell into two main groups, those who believed in freedom and human rights and those who followed fascism. This page was last changed on 24 February 2019, at 17:22. Then, in the 20th century, Europe came close to destroying itself. It is traditionally divided into ancient (before the fall of the Western Roman Empire) medieval, and modern (after the fall of Constantinople). After this war Communism spread to Central and Eastern Europe, including the relatively new Eastern European countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and in Asia North Vietnam and North Korea, and, slightly later, to Cuba in the Carribean Sea very near to North America. Updates? Europe in Year 600. Yet, to the Roman Empire, this was mare nostrum (“our sea”), an inland sea rather than a frontier. Sort fact from fiction—and euro from Nero—in this quiz of European history. Welcome to the House of European History. To the south, Europe ends on the northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Early inhabitants during the Paleolithic Age, in an effort to survive, grouped together into small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting for wild animals. 08 Jan 2021. These two deeply different views led to a Second World War, which most people who write history feel began in Europe when Germany invaded Poland in 1939, but soon spread to most of the countries in the world. Europe in Year 1300. Europe is the second smallest continent in the world with a land area of only 4,000,000 square miles. The defeat of Germany came at the price of economic destruction, which was formally written into the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 where it was stated that the First World War had been entirely the fault of Germany and its allies and demanded that they pay back the entire amount the war had cost. The burned child fears fire; and Europe had been badly burned. Robert Wilde. Judt, p.632/33, "The Great Famine and the Black Death - 1315-1317, 1346-1351 - Lectures in Medieval History - Dr. Lynn H. Nelson, Emeritus Professor, Medieval History, KU", "The End of Europe's Middle Ages - Ottoman Turks", The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England, http://oror.essortment.com/fallofthesovi_rkcm.htm, An Atlas of European History at Wikimedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Europe&oldid=6454370, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Prehistory . This treatment begins with the Stone Age and continues through the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the … The Periodis historical Atlas, describes the political status of the European continent at fixed intervals. Plan your visit GENERAL INFORMATION. Was the euro introduced in 1999? Turmoil in international currency markets threatened the common price system of the common agricultural policy, a main pillar of what was then the European Economic Community. Each side wanted to promote their type of government. Omissions? It is traditionally divided into ancient medieval, and modern. FIND OUT MORE. His discussion is never very deep, as might be expected in a book that treats the whole of ancient Greek history in a mere 20 pages, but it is astonishingly broad. Mary Critchfield and Barnaby Keeney Professor of History, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, 1986–91. When the great land massesof Africa and India collide with Europe and Asia, about 100 million years ago, they cause the crust of the earth to crumple upwards in a long almost continuous ridge of high ground - from the Alps, through Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan to … While lacking in detail, these books provide valuable insights into long-term development while avoiding the often nation-centric interpretations of shorter studies. The House of European History can be experienced in all 24 EU official languages. Remove Ads Advertisement . History of Europe - A Historical Atlas of Europe from Year 1 until Year 2000. The Byzantine Empire survived in the East. Very broadly and inadequately, its peoples can be sorted into Nordic, Alpine or Celtic, and Mediterranean types, and the bulk of their languages classified as either Romance or Germanic. We can evaluate the influence of these important movements in the course of time, by comparing them to the normal periods, to the "control years" in some way. Their motive was fourfold: to prevent further wars in Europe, in particular by reconciling France and Germany and helping to deter aggression by others; to eschew the protectionism and “beggar-my-neighbour” policies that had been practiced between the wars; to match the political and economic influence of the world’s new superpowers, but on a civilian basis; and to begin to civilize international relations by introducing common rules and institutions that would identify and promote the shared interests of Europe rather than the national interests of its constituent states. EU Pioneers. The descriptions of kings and cities mentioned in the Iliad were investigated for ethnographical and geo… Without their energy and motivation, we would not be living in the sphere of peace and stability that we take for granted. Price New from Used from Hardcover "Please retry" $30.99 . Author of, A map of Europe from the first edition of the. While many history books focus on a limited area, such as the Vietnam War, other texts examine far broader subjects, and there are plenty of volumes narrating Europe's past from prehistory until today. Europe in Year 1800. FIND OUT MORE. Covid Makes History... A platform for museums across Europe. The questions have more than merely geographic significance. Many of Europe’s fields have been battlefields, and many of Europe’s cities, it has been said, were built on bones.  The early British Empire split as its colonies in America revolted to establish their own representative government. The discovery of these early civilizations was a result of investigations by a new breed of 19th century archaeologists who studied the classical literature of the Ancient world for its historical value rather than its mythical content. The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 showed the military weakness of the Christians in Eastern Europe. Even now, some question whether Malta or Cyprus is a European island. The greatest uncertainty lies to the east, where natural frontiers are notoriously elusive. Europe in Year 1200. The international currency stability that reigned in the immediate post-war period did not last. It was not until after World War II, however, that European statesmen began to seek ways of uniting Europe peacefully on a basis of equality instead of domination by one or more great powers. In a sense it was implicitly prefigured by the Roman Empire. It was followed by Crusades from west to rescue the Holy Land from Muslim invasion. Updated July 10, 2019 Europe has long been a seed of political, cultural, and economic influence. J. M. Roberts, author of a fine one-volume history of the world, offers a careful synthesis of European history from the Stone Age to the collapse of Communism in A History of Europe. By indicating that he would not intervene he decisively undermined the only real source of political legitimacy available to the rulers of the satellite states [...] It was Mr. Gorbechev's revolution." The European Union as we know it started its journey over half a century ago.  Then the United States was the only superpower left. It was called the Great War but now most often called World War I or the First World War. Also available on a single page, which should be printable if needed. The rise of the Minoan (3000 BCE to 1100 BCE) and Mycenaean civilizations and their influence on the Aegean islands and mainland Greece shapes the earliest history of Southern Europe. As more and more small property holders were granted the vote, especially in France and the UK, socialist and trade union activity developed and revolution gripped Europe in 1848. Web. Yet Europeans have also been in the forefront of intellectual, social, and economic endeavour. Feudal society began to break down, as the Black Death spread.. Media in category "History of Europe" The following 95 files are in this category, out of 95 total. "The History of Europe: Every Year." Successive waves of invasion, mainly from the east, were followed by centuries of rivalry and conflict, both within Europe and overseas. Publication date c1921 Topics Europe -- History, Europe -- Civilization Publisher Boston : Ginn Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor MSN Contributor Robarts - University of Toronto Language English. It is by its nature broad brush history, but Davies includes plenty of small details and historical anecdotes which bring a sense of realism to the history he is describing. The Renaissance was followed by the Protestant Reformation, as priest Martin Luther attacked Papal authority. By comparison with other continents, western Europe is small and immensely varied, divided by rivers and mountains and cut into by inlets and creeks. History maps. History is a continuous string of events among which prominent facts sometimes emerge: wars, conquests, revolutions etc. For the histories of individual countries, see specific articles by name. our editorial process. The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the European continent after prehistoric times to the present. Others involved in that first step included the statesmen Alcide De Gasperi and Paul-Henri Spaak. The Roman Republic was established in 509 BC, which was usurped by Octavian's new Roman Empire at its first century BC peak. Hartford Web Publishing is not the author of the documents in World History Archives and does not presume to validate their accuracy or authenticity nor to release their copyright. Crisis, recovery, and resilience: Did the Middle Ages end? This article treats the history of European society and culture. To many British and some Irish people, however, “Europe” means essentially continental Europe. Henry C. Lea Professor of Medieval History, Harvard University, 1980–86. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 03 Oct 2018. Political, economic, and social background, The emergence of modern Europe, 1500–1648, Political and cultural influences on the economy, Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789–1914, General character of the Romantic movement, Early 19th-century social and political thought, The rise of organized labour and mass protests, https://www.britannica.com/topic/history-of-Europe, NeoK12 - Educational Videos and Games for School Kids - Industry. A new schism within the church's authority in 1054 was added to the earlier division that had persisted since 451. Europe in Year 1100. Political change in continental Europe was spurred by the French Revolution, as people cried out for liberté, egalité, fraternité (liberty, equality, brotherhood). The following visionary leaders inspired the creation of the European Union we live in today. 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