Women should also be educated in music and gymnastics as well as the art of war. The aim of education, according to Plato, is the welfare of both the individual and the society. China's economic expansion, which has driven higher commodity prices, has significantly contributed to higher GDP growth rates, especially of resource-producing states. Writers like Ebegbulem, Ezirim, As an alternative to relativism Plato develops a dual level conception of reality. However, such strength may come at too high a price. In the late dialogues, Plato uses Socrates almost exclusively to advance his own views. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Athenian views of music and music education as these are presented in the works of the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and … While calling for an urgent reorientation of the leadership class in Nigeria, this research called for an urgent need to revamp all the relevant institutions and agencies delegated with the tasks of regulating and emitting punitive measures to checkmate and deter those who perpetuate corruption in the state. It is also due partly to a crude Machiavellian equation of political conflict in civil society with a war situation in which rules can be disregarded and in which ones political adversaries must be annihilated— a conception of the political marketplace at variance with the emphasis of federalism and consocia-tionalism on compromise and checks on political excesses. education lacking among the leadership class. Thus, Lipset and Lenz 2000 note that "corruption has been ubiquitous in complex societies from ancient Egypt, Israel, Rome, and Greece down to the present." any situation that may pop up in the line of discharging their duties. The secret to sustainable economic growth in emerging markets. office. These variables are further re-enforced by the lack of a consistent theory of leadership among scholars, hence the rising cases of leadership crisis in the country. matters arising from the criteria stipulated by Plato for political leadership. We humans are limited in time and space, our perception and intellect are subject to error, our point of view limits what we can apprehend and understand. This attitude some scholars argue, a, This paper takes a critical look at Nigeria's changing role in the promotion of democratic values in Africa since its return to democracy in 1999. an philosophers. 24, No. Plato’s Republic, which political leaders should be acquainted with before qualifying to run for Sub-Saharan Africa recorded 6.2 % growth over the 2003-2008 periods following a similar upward growth trend to China. Of course, there is also the possibility that those children may become stronger or more resilient as a result of their experiences. left with the task while the farmers or carpenters on the other hand, should be encouraged to stick, Table: 5. Earlier in this study, we had noted that the study is guided by. The book's central innovative thesis is that Plato's psychology, more specifically his theory of desires, holds the key to this, his most ambitious work. Therefore, this article, which re-visits the discussion on corruption in Nigeria, adopts a new approach with a view to effectively managing the challenges of corruption in the society. failure and a deteriorating political economy presently hampering sustainable development strides PLATO’S THEORY OF EDUCATION AND THE QUEST FOR SUSTAINABLE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS, Covenant University Ota Ogun State, Nigeria, LEADERSHIP CRISIS AND CORRUPTION IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR: AN ALBATROSS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Ancient Greek Philosophers and their Philosophy, The Role of INEC, ICPC and EFCC in Combating Political Corruption‘, Philosopher-Kings: The Argument of Plato's Republic. the field sought to answer the following research questions: and quantitative data was found to be most appropriate for the study. been exposed to, only these class of person should the art of leadership be entrusted to. leadership class and the notion of leadership practiced in Nigeria. The rising adoption of Thrasymachus’ notions of injustice has been attributed to these lacks, hence the growing cases of leadership crisis. So Plato recommends an education system which is uniform and which pursues the general aims of the society itself. Education in the “Laws” is to be universal and not restricted, as in the “Republic”, to the guardian class and is to be compulsory. Philosopher-Kings and Leadership Crisis in The African Past: A Critical Review of African Leaders. According to Barker “An attempt to cure mental malady by mental medicine”. Leads University, Ibadan. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Education for Plato was one of the great things of life. recommended and ideal polis which is headed by the Philosopher-king. A. The Qualities Leaders Must Possess Before They Are Able to Rule or Lead the, office, have been absent in some considerable measure among those in Nigeria who have. music) is necessary for the training of soul and the other (i.e. before the age of seven years, the child should not be educated formally. THE ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE SOCRATES: Next, said I [= Socrates], compare our nature in respect of education and its lack to such an experience as this. Socrates’ student Plato endorsed that view and held that a fundamental task of education is that of helping students to value reason and to be reasonable, which for him involved valuing wisdom above pleasure, honour, and other less-worthy pursuits. For higher education he emphasizes the study of numbers and geometry. week and watery the soul of men (White, 1979:163-170; Boyd, 2010:48-58). place when discussing sub questions (6 and 7). Obviously, Nigeria is not one of those countries with a better handle on corruption, despite its unending corruption commissions and all the noise made by every administration on the efforts to transform the nation into a corruption-free society. B. 100% of the entire responses which came in to affirmed this point of view. control over the lives of the auxiliary (White, 1979; Boyd, 2010). Music helped the child to grow gentle, graceful and harmonious. One important fact is that all around the world, different parts of the globe and different regions of the world had their own speculations about the world and all its associated questions and attempt at answers to these questions. Department of International Relations, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State. Retrieved on January 14, 2016. or military, the police and the administrative class. The education of these two subjects aimed at producing an improved soul and a healthy body. The studies conducted in this research revealed that the troubling attitude and disposition to be corrupt among political appointees has both philosophical and psychological undertones. The share of Chinese FDI received by Africa is a small fraction of total OFDI from China. At the first stage of life i.e. According to Plato an individual basically is the combination of three powers. Plato view of education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. The theoretical framework that guides this study stems from Aristotle’s notion of prudence as contained in the Nicomachean Ethics, which states that prudence is a central moral resource for political leaders. and sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. Gymnastics helped him to develop, courage, patience, reason, consideration, and temperance and whole mindedness. Plato believed that it is the state which can make the life of the individuals perfect and ideal and so he gave out his views in regard to education in this context. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-, network/2014/feb/20/labour-markets-brics-economic-growth, Kenny, Charles (2011). Plato’s Philosophy A. it also sought to identify how the absence of a leadership, qualitative, selfless and result oriented leaders. Through the life of Aristotle, one would wonder how a mere thought of philosophy could impact the way education is practiced today as we know it. p. 63-65. Later argument in this section will make this clearer. Development Studies, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State Nigeria. result in persistent economic cataclysm”. All rights reserved. Debt-servicing increased to almost 47 percent1 by the middle of the decade of 1990s and comprised 8.3 percent of the GDP, up from less than 1 percent mid-1960s. Therefore, receiving a good education is a shortcut to success. and functions the Guardians and the Auxiliaries class cannot do without (Pappas, 1995:194). Plato prescribed a general type of curriculum prevailing in Greece at that time. Thoughts on Plato’s View of Education Marc Cadet October 20th, 2015 Plato’s general view on education has tremendous academic value, yet some of his beliefs in regards to education are irrefutably questionable and flawed, as well. Aristotle’s Notion of Prudence as Panacea to the Leadership Crisis in Nigeria. According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when each individual develops his or her ability to the fullest. suggested that the leaders in questions, only. This will sharpen the minds of students. they are perceived as the class that promotes the principle of specific func. sheriff.folarin@covenantuniversity.edu.ng. This inconsistency translates to epistemological and ontological lacks resulting, Contemporary ethicists and some writers on leadership have in a bid to address the problem of leadership crisis in Nigeria, identified the absence of practical prudence - which manifests in variabl, There is ongoing debate between the Universalists and the Particularist schools of thought on the basic ingredients that should describe and constitute African Philosophy and by implication - Afric, Contemporary scholars have observed that there is a troubling rising attitude among political leaders to become corrupt because of the benefits it accrues them. www.unn.academia.edu Retrieved 1st August, 2012. The paper identified that the rising cases of policy We just Don’t Know, In, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-. The aim of education, according to Plato, is the welfare of both the individual and the society. The research adopts a combination of qualitative and quantitative research designs for analysing data collected from interviews and focused group discussion with the view to identify how Plato’s notions of leadership educations is able to curb leadership crisis in Nigeria and boost political development among other things. For the Greeks and Plato, excellence is … national development (Imhonopi & Urim, 2013:2). Agbor, U. I. The important function of education is to determine what every individual is by nature capable and fitted of doing things. unless they fail in some other respect” (. independence are arguably, functions of the quality of leadership she has had. This study has identified the albatross to national development in Nigeria as a spin-off of the leadership crisis and corruption prevalent in its public sector and made valuable recommendations. This is the type of corruption the citizens encounter daily at places like the hospitals, schools, local licensing offices, encounters with the police, taxing offices, etc. Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. in the country, are largely a result of the absence of qualitative leadership structures as contained in The study identifies the lack of viable frameworks for political leadership and a growing corrupt elite class as some of the factors which continues to breed leadership crisis in Nigeria. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Even moral results were obtained through them. (Lipset and Lenz, 2000; Amuwo, 2005; Aiyede, 2006:5 and Obayelu, 2007). His interest in soul, dialogue and in continuing education continue to provide informal educators with rich insights. Plato does not suggest separate curriculum for women. These debates seem to have influenced the belief that the world views of one culture (Western) are comparatively superior to another philosophically, to the extent of denigrating the other (African) as non-philosophical. Every individual should devote his life to what is best fitted for him to do. (Ed), in Wogu, I. Sequential Transformative Design (STD), Concurrent Transformative Design (CTD), De, the attainment of the objectives outlined for this research. The people in the cave represent us as a society, and Plato … Content available from Ikedinachi Ayodele Power Wogu: All content in this area was uploaded by Ikedinachi Ayodele Power Wogu on Dec 02, 2016, All content in this area was uploaded by Ikedinachi Ayodele Power Wogu on Dec 01, 2016, PLATO’S THEORY OF EDUCATION AND THE QUEST. Journal- South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Moreover, Plato’s treatment of education in the “Laws” is different from that of his “Republic”. Thus, the mixed-method approach which. Plato and Play Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece s Armand D’Angour In this article, the author outlines Plato’s notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher’s views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. sessions, the researcher and his assistant, led. cause to pose these pertinent questions stated below. Each theory is intertwined and are the best examples to represent Plato’s own view on what knowledge really is, even thought they are unique in their own way by opening up new and different ideas, Here we will explore how one example relates to the other in terms of the truth of knowledge from Plato’s point of view. Plato (428 – 348 BC) Greek philosopher who was the pupil of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle – and one of the most influential figures in ‘western’ thought. Aristotle View of Education. It goes.Nov 18, 2008. To protect the state from every external aggression [373e-374a, 45e], Unless the Philosophers rule as kings or those now, very factor that justifies their rule as, Educational Criteria for Political Leadership. This education is of primary importance in the case of those who are to be statesmen, and leaders. Plato's beliefs on education, however, are difficult to discern because of the intricacies of the dialogue. From importer to exporter: the changing role of Nigeria in promoting democratic values in Africa, Political Economy of Fiscal Reforms in the 1990s, Aspects of Chinese investment in the African resources sector. Journal of the African Educational Research Network. and sustainable development efforts in Nigeria. Sandrey and Edinger (2010) noted that in the period 2000-2008, the growth rate in Africa's trade with China increased about twice as fast as that with the USA or the EU. PART ONE: SETTING THE SCENE: THE CAVE AND THE FIRE The cave SOCRATES: Imagine this: People live under the earth in a … The paper argues that only prudent leaders will have the capacity to identify salient aspects of political situations which leaders have obligations to consider before making political decision. Philosophy literally means “love of wisdom.” Philia is the Greek word for “love” and sophia is the Greek word for “wisdom.” The ancient Greeks were no strangers to the love of wisdom, and they offered a logos – an account – of what they believed the world to be made up of. In Nigeria, the public sector has become an epitome of all that is corrupt, mediocre and fraudulent. The absolute majority of, How do various stakeholders capitalize off of display workers’ bodies? who aspires for office and leadership positions in 21, guide the laws and the institution of the state. He should stay with his mother or nurse and be educated in their company. Therefore he presents an ideal state in his famous book “Republic”. Some of the respondents I spoke to felt that it did. the citizens in the state (White, 1979:183-190; Boyd, 2010:78-82). were used to attain the objectives of this paper. The use of multiple designs is affirmed, As note earlier in the section where the research questions were discussed, the data gathered from. Scholars like Agbor argue that those who embrace this kind of attitude while in office, tend to display a blatant disregard for basic leadership virtues such as: justice, integrity, prudence discipline, honesty and accountability in their line of duty. P. 192. The object of education is to turn the soul towards light. The inward/outward looking nature of the field of philosophy ofeducation alluded to above makes the task of delineating the field, ofgiving an over-all picture of the intellectual landscape, somewhatcomplicated (for a detailed account of this topography, see Phillips1985, 2010). For Plato, one of the most distinguishing features of leadership is that such individuals must have, will rule the state properly. adopts Plato’s leadership education theory with the view to interrogating how this theory can Historians cannot find any evidence on Plato’s early education as a child, but seeing as he belonged to an influential aristocratic family from Athens, it’s assumed that he went through the Athenian form of educationthat was oriented towards culture, arts, academics, and intelligence. A rising opinion among scholars of leadership and sustainable development associate the increasing re associated with the philosophy of Thrasymachus which simply holds that ‘might is right’. In other words, Plato's education helps to create not necessarily wisdom-loving society like in Socrates' theory or good-life in Aristotle's 1. This is due partly to the character of the competition to control the Nigerian state, which impelled political parties in the First and Second Republics to cross-cut ethnic cleavages. Copyright © Eliot & Associates. for collecting and analyzing data gathered from interviews and focused group discussion sessions, The educational processes and stages proposed include: intellectual and physical training exercises. According to Socrates and Plato, ‘the aim of education is to attain knowledge‘. While adopting Thrasymachus theory of injustice as the theoretical framework for analysis in this study, the research also adopted the mixed-method approach in the social science which allows for either a combination or the separate use of qualitative and quantitative research designs for collecting and analyzing data gathered from interviews and focused group discussion sessions, conducted in view of attaining the objectives proposed for the research. expected to take up leadership positions (Philosopher-kings). Political corruption, which takes place at the highest levels of political authority, is a 'corruption of greed.' Hawtrey, The Classical Review. Other forms of corruption include embezzlement (theft of public resources by public officials) and bribery (persuade to act improperly by a gift of money, etc). Political Economy of Embodiment: Capitalizing on Globally Staged Bodies in Nigerian Beauty Pageants... Conference: 2nd Biennial International Conference of the Faculty of Arts and Education. The Greek society is socially, politically, and religiously corrupts. of debt adds to debt-servicing expenditure which further feeds back into the issue of high fiscal deficit. Without education, human beings have no difference from the animals. Plato is in favor of education in a free atmosphere without any compulsion or check. political and economic development (Jinadu, 1985; Ebegbulem, 2009). . This scenario. If we were too spirited, we would become overly aggressive. Section 4 shows the rise in dependence on external sources of financing. While adopting the traditional method of critical analysis and the reconstructive method of ideas in philosophy to conceptually and contextually analyze existing arguments and relevant texts and materials on the subject of the study. Consequent on the above positions, Plato, impressions, Plato made the following resolutions about the, tirelessly to feed the Polis, they must not be seen to. Current literature on leadership identifies growing inconsistences in various notions of leadership among scholars. For the early education, Plato recommends the inclusion of dances, hunting and field exercises in gymnastics. Plato’s education of music, gymnastics, mathematics and dialectics in the Republic helps to ensure that these three components of the soul are in harmony with each other. Plato’s theory of education is connected to his theory of justice, education act as an important role to bring harmony according to Barker and unity in the society. Eliot & Associates (2005). The above inscription in the original Greek language had, was unjustly accused of, the events following this conviction made Plato came to the point where. This division is the justice in society and in ideal state, where everyone would get his/her due role to play in the society. largely on the mannerism of its leadership. network of people onstage, backstage, and offstage who capitalize off displayed bodies in qualitatively different ways. Bureaucratic corruption, which occurs 'in the public administration" or 'the implementation end of politics,' is the 'low level' and 'street level' corruption. But the effectiveness of federalism and consociationalism as conflict regulating mechanisms has been limited. He says that women and girls should undergo the same gymnastic and military exercises as men and boys. summary, they do not have any say in mattes of politics or governance in the state. Children should come to the school not only if their parents please, but there should be compulsory education. Plato has designed his educational plan for the education of guardians or rulers. Key Words: Plato’s Education Theory, Political Development, Qualitati, country. educations for political leaders be adopted forthwith, for its ability to instill and boosting political exports to China are composed of raw minerals and metals. Plato’s design of education. The concept of Kinder Garten finds its roots in the principles laid down by Plato. Theme: Education, Security and Sustainability. Upon reaching the age of 50 years and after undergoing all the prescribed training, Whichever individual is best able to guard the laws, rsons, Plato further argued, must be individuals who are “sure to be temperate and, ited for serving and caring for the wellbeing of, NIGERIA’S QUEST FOR SUSTAINABLE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT, PLATO’S THEORY OF EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE POLITICAL, Adopted from (Eliot and Associates, 2005)], : Bar Chart of Data Gathered During FGD Responses to 1, Laws and policies should be put in place to enforce and ensure that, Managing the challenges of corruption in Nigeria, Plato’s argument for rule by philosopher kings, http://articles.philly.com/2005-05-02/news/25440631_1_civil-war-nigerian-razor-.